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23 gennaio 2020 Il quotidiano on-line per gli operatori e gli utenti del trasporto 17:10 GMT+1



ESPO
ANNUAL REPORT 2006-2007

 

6. The dry bulk market

6.1 Iron ore and coal production and seaborne dry bulk trades

As mentioned in the first chapter of this Market Report, a total volume 4.69 billion tons of dry cargo was shipped in 2005. This consisted of 1.70 billion tons of the five major bulks (iron ore, coal, grains, bauxite/alumina and rock phosphate), 950 million tons minor dry bulks and 2.04 billion tons other dry cargoes. The latter category mainly refers to containerized cargo and other general cargo, including RoRo.

According to Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation, world production of iron ore reached 1.26 billion tons in 2005, some 4.3% higher than the year before (Table 44). The top-five countries (Brazil, Australia, China, India and Russia) produced nearly 1 billion tons, giving them a combined market share of 79%. A similar picture applies to the export side, where the top-five countries (Australia, Brazil, India, Canada and South Africa) exported 600 million tons of iron ore in 2005, for a combined market share of 84%. Table 44 also illustrates that some 57% of worldwide iron ore production was exported in 2005. Countries such as Canada, Australia, Sweden, Brazil and South Africa put most of their iron ore production on the export market. On the other hand, China, the Ukraine, the United States and Russia used most (if not all) of their iron ore production for domestic purposes. The situation in India was rather balanced, with 55% of iron ore production exported and 45% used for domestic purposes. Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation forecasts a production volume of some 1.65 billion tons of iron ore for 2010.

 

Table 44: Production and exports of iron ore in 2005 (million tons)

Production

m tons

%

Exports

m tons

%

% of
prod.

Brazil

293

23%

Australia

239

34%

91%

Australia

262

21%

Brazil

225

32%

77%

China

198

16%

India

81%

11%

55%

India

146

12%

Canada

28

4%

100%

Russia

97

8%

South Africa

27

4%

68%

Ukraine

69

5%

Russia

20

3%

21%

United States

55

4%

Ukraine

20

3%

29%

South Africa

40

3%

Sweden

18

3%

78%

Canada

28

2%

United States

12

2%

22%

Sweden

23

2%

China

0

0%

0%

Others

44

4%

Others

43

6%

 

World total

1,255

100%

World total

713

100%

57%

Source: Baffinland Iron Mines Corportation (2006)

 

The World Coal Institute estimates that global production of hard coal reached 4.97 billion tons in 2005, a 7.4% increase over the year before. The top-10 hard coal producers were China (2.23bn tons), the United States (951m tons), India (398m tons), Australia (301m tons), South Africa (240m tons), Russia (222m tons), Indonesia (140m tons), Poland (98m tons), Kazakhstan (79m tons) and Colombia (61m tons). Hence, these countries accounted for 95% of worldwide hard coal production in 2005. Worldwide consumption of hard coal reached 4.99 billion tons in 2005, of which 63% in the Asia-Pacific region, 19% in North America, 7% in Europe and 6% in the Former Soviet Union. Finally, the total brown coal/lignite production is estimated at 905 million tons in 2005. Major brown coal producers include Germany, the United States, Russia, Greece and Australia.

Tables 45, 46 and 47 depict the import-export matrices for the three main dry bulk categories in 2004, the most recent years for which this detailed information is available.

 

Table 45: Export-Import matrix for seaborne coal trade in 2004 (million tons)

From/to

UK/Cont.

Mediter.

Other Eur.

S.America

Japan

Other FE

Others

Total

FSU/E.Europe

26.1

18.6

10.2

0.3

9.3

7.1

1.9

73.6

North America

12.9

5.8

4.6

8.2

10.2

9.2

3.5

54.5

Australia

19.3

3.3

6.9

10.3

102.5

59.3

23.4

225.0

South Africa

24.2

7.4

14.4

2.2

0.0

1.3

6.3

56.0

Others

24.2

11.9

10.0

5.1

57.9

107.4

39.5

256.0

Total

106.7

47.1

46.1

25.7

180.0

184.5

74.6

664.7

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

 

Table 46: Export-Import matrix for seaborne iron ore trade in 2004 (million tons)

From/to

UK/Cont.

Mediter.

Other Eur.

US

Japan

China

Other FE

Others

Total

Scandinavia

6.6

0.8

0.9

0.0

0.0

0.7

0.2

6.7

15.8

Other Europe

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

0.9

3.4

5.2

West Africa

7.6

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.7

11.0

Other Africa

7.2

0.3

3.2

0.0

10.1

17.0

1.6

2.3

41.7

North America

12.0

1.3

0.3

0.0

0.9

1.9

2.3

4.5

23.2

S.America Atl.

46.2

2.4

8.1

7.5

27.1

54.4

20.9

38.2

204.8

S.America Pac.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

4.1

5.7

3.0

0.6

13.8

Asia

0.6

0.1

0.0

0.0

21.9

39.8

3.7

2.1

68.3

Australia

14.6

1.0

0.5

0.1

76.3

69.6

38.8

5.2

206.1

Total

95.3

5.9

13.7

8.0

140.4

189.6

71.3

65.7

589.8

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

 

Table 47: Export-Import matrix for seaborne grain trade in 2004 (million tons)

From/to

US

Canada

S.America

Australia

Others

Total

UK/Continent

2.8

0.7

6.0

0.0

0.3

9.8

Mediterranean

4.0

1.7

6.1

0.7

3.5

16.0

East Europe

0.6

0.0

0.6

0.0

3.5

4.8

Other Europe

0.4

0.1

2.2

0.0

0.4

3.1

Africa

14.6

2.2

7.4

3.8

12.0

40.1

Americas

26.5

3.2

7.8

0.2

0.2

37.9

Near East

3.6

0.0

1.0

0.1

2.9

7.6

Indian Ocean

2.1

0.8

4.7

6.7

5.0

19.2

Japan

22.8

1.7

0.8

2.7

0.7

28.6

Other Far East

30.1

5.2

16.4

9.9

6.7

68.4

Not specified

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

Total

107.6

15.7

53.0

24.6

35.1

236.0

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

 

Table 48 provides an overview of the main dry cargo (all categories combined) loading and unloading areas in 2005. On the loading and unloading side, developed market-economy countries accounted for more than half of total trade.

 

Table 48: Loading and unloading areas for dry cargo in 2005

Area

Loaded

Unloaded

Area

Loaded

Unloaded

North America

502.8

442.20

Caribbean. Central and North America

65.3

86.1

Europe

1,065.1

1,514.90

South America North and East

392.6

91.7

Japan

185.5

584.70

South America West

119.9

34.6

Australia/New-Zealand

604.4

47.90

Subtotal developing countries in America

577.8

212.4

South Africa

171.6

23.50

West Asia

72.7

140.6

Subtotal DMECs

2,529.4

2,613.2

South and East Asia

761.7

914.9

Central and Eastern Europe

181

67.4

Subtotal developing countries in Asia

834.4

1,055.5

Socialist countries of Asia

478.4

583.9

Developing Countries in Europe

16.9

11.1

North Africa

38

84.3

Developing Countries in Oceania

2.1

5.5

West Africa

19.6

42.1

Subtotal developing countries

1,498.1

1,431.4

East Africa

9.3

20.5

     

Subtotal developing countries in Africa

66.9

146.9

World total

4,686.9

4,695.9

Source: UNCTAD (2006)

Finally, Figure 5 provides an overview of the dry bulk seaborne trade in 2006. Total trade amounted to some 2.15 billion tons, of which iron ore (31%), thermal coal (24%) and minor bulks (22%) represented the lionís share. Figure 5 also clearly illustrates the importance of the steel industry for dry bulk shipping: iron ore, coking coal and bauxite/alumina represented a combined volume of 937 million tons or nearly 44% of the total dry bulk seaborne trade in 2006. In addition, (semi-) finished steel products (which indeed classify as general cargo rather than dry bulk) represented a total volume of 218 million tons of seaborne trade in 2006.

According to the International Iron and Steel Institute, the production of crude steel reached an estimated 1.22 billion tons in 2006, an increase of some 8% compared to the year before. The top-10 crude steel producers were China (421m tons), Japan (116m tons), the United States (99m tons), Russia (71m tons), South Korea (48m tons), Germany (47m tons), India (43m tons), Ukraine (41m tons), Italy (32m tons) and Brazil (31m tons). Hence, these countries accounted for three quarters of worldwide crude steel production in 2006. Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation forecasts a further increase in world crude steel production to some 1.46 billion tons in 2010.

China is a particular case in point as far as crude steel is concerned. Until 2004 the country was a net importer of crude steel, but following massive increases in production in 2005 (+24.6%) and 2006 (+18.5%) the balance has shifted. According to French broker Barry Rogliano Salles, the gap between production and consumption of crude steel in China amounted to some 36 million tons in 2006 and it is expected to widen further to some 140 million tons in 2010. Having said this, however, Chinese consumption of crude steel is still very substantial. Of the estimated total world crude steel consumption of 1.13 billion tons in 2005, China accounted for 350m tons (31%), followed by the United States (113m tons), Japan (83m tons), South Korean (49m tons), India (41m tons) and Germany (39m tons). Hence, these six countries accounted for some 60% of world crude steel consumption in 2005.

 

6.2 Some key figures on the dry bulk fleet

Table 49 provides an overview of the dry bulk fleet for selected dates. At the first of July 2006 the total fleet reached 353.62m dwt, a 21.4% increase compared to the beginning of 2002. This is slightly lower than the 22.4% increase in the dwt capacity of the world merchant fleet over the period considered. As a result, the share of dry bulk vessel capacity in the world fleet marginally decreased from 36.4% at the beginning of 2002 to 36.1% at mid-2006.

 

Table 49: Overview of the dry bulk fleet for selected dates

 

01-01-2002

 

01/07/2006

Growth

 
 

(Ď000 dwt)

%

(Ď000 dwt)

%

 

Bulk carriers

277,067

95.2%

346,412

98.0%

25.0%

Oil/bulk/ore carriers (OBO)

14,108

4.8%

7,211

2.0%

-48.9%

Total dry bulk fleet

291,175

100%

353,623

100%

21.4%

World merchant fleet

799,763

978.522

22.4%

   

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

 

Table 50 provides an overview of the dry bulk fleet divided by dwt range for 01/01/2006. As far as bulk carriers are concerned, nearly 65% of dwt capacity is provided by vessels in the 20,000-99,999 dwt range. Vessels above 100,000 dwt represent hardly 10% of the total number of ships, but they provide some 33% of the dwt capacity. Secondly, the oil/bulk/ore vessels are heavily concentrated in the 70,000-149,999 dwt range, with only two vessels being bigger than 200,000 dwt.

 

Table 50: Breakdown of the dry bulk fleet by dwt range (as at 01/01/2006)

 

Bulk carriers

Oil/bulk/ore carriers

Dwt range

ships

Ď000 dwt

% dwt

ships

Ď000 dwt

% dwt

0-9.999

877

2.883

0.9%

47

156

1.9%

0,000-9,999

499

7,858

2.4%

3

43

0.5%

20,000-49,999

2722

93,871

28.1%

8

359

4.4%

50,000-69,999

888

52,941

15.9%

12

706

8.7%

70,000-99,999

842

63,519

19.0%

43

3,553

43.9%

100,000-149,999

153

21,412

6.4%

18

2,021

25.0%

150,000-199,999

441

74,833

22.4%

4

638

7.9%

200,000-299,999

66

14,360

4.3%

0

0

0.0%

300,000-399,999

6

1,954

0.6%

216

2

7.6%

400,000+

0

0

0.0%

0

0

0.0%

Total dry bulk fleet

6494

333,631

100%

137

8.088

100%

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

 

Finally, Table 51 provides an overview of the total dry bulk fleet (controlled and registered) by region. As this table indicates, more than 90% of the dry bulk fleet is controlled by owners in Asia/Oceania and Europe. On the other hand, just like was the case for the tanker fleet, the regional tonnage distribution according to the flag of registry shows a strong concentration on Latin and South America.

 

Table 51: World dry bulk fleet (controlled and registered) by region as at 01/01/2006 (percentages based on dwt)

   

million

Share

   

dwt

 

Controlled
fleet

Europe

129.5

37.9%

North America

7.2

2.1%

Latin and South America

3.3

1.0%

Asia and Oceania

180.3

52.8%

Africa

0.9

0.3%

Unknown

20.1

5.9%

       

Registered
fleet

Europe

60.2

17.6%

North America

0.7

0.2%

Latin and South America

135.7

39.8%

Asia and Oceania

123.8

36.3%

Africa

20.8

6.1%

 

Total

341.3

100%

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

 

6.3 European shipping companies active in the dry bulk market

Table 52 provides a (non-exhaustive) overview of the main European shipping companies active in the dry bulk market. Just like with the liquid bulk market, the lionís share of these companies are located in Scandinavia, Germany and Greece. Moreover, quite a number of them are also active in the liquid bulk (LB) market.

 

Table 52: Main European shipping companies active in the dry bulk market

Country

Shipping Company

LB

Country

Shipping Company

LB

Denmark

Norden

X

Spain

Elcano

X

Denmark

Lauritzen

X

France

Louis Dreyfus Arm.

 

Sweden

Fredriksen group

X

France

Setaf Saget

 

Norway

Western Bulk

 

Germany

Schulte group

X

Norway

Eitzen Group

X

Germany

E. Oldendorff

X

Norway

KG Jebsen

X

Germany

Orion Bulkers

 

Norway

Torvald Klaveness

 

Germany

Aug. Bolten

 

Norway

Grieg-Star Shipping

 

Germany

Peter Döhle

 

Norway

Spar Shipping

 

Germany

Vogemann

 

UK

Zodiac Maritime

X

Germany

Poseidon Schiffahrt

X

UK

Graig group

 

Germany

ASP Shipmgt

X

UK

Nordbulk

 

Greece

Angelicoussis

X

Italy

Coeclerici Ceres

 

Greece

Polembros

X

Italy

Premuda

X

Greece

Enterprises shipping

 

Italy

DíAmico Nav.

X

Greece

Marmaras Nav.

 

Italy

Bottiglieri

X

Greece

Golden Union

 

Italy

Fratelli díAmato

 

Greece

Carras Hellas

 

Belgium

CMB

       

 

6.4 Dry bulk cargo handled in European seaports

Table 53 provides an overview of dry bulk traffic handled in a selection of European seaports. The table was drawn from a large Eurostat database containing about 350 ports, handling a total throughput of 977 million tons of dry bulk in 2005. However, for the present Report we have limited ourselves to those seaports which handled at least 500,000 tons of dry bulk traffic. This resulted in a total ports sample of about 230 individual ports spread across 24 different countries. Their combined dry bulk throughput amounted to 944 million tons in 2005, effectively representing 97% of the total throughput of the 350 ports in the Eurostat database.

As can be seen from Table 53, the lionís share of this volume was handled in ports in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy and France. Between them, these five countries accounted for 564 million tons of dry bulk traffic in 2005. On an individual port basis, by far the biggest dry bulk port is Rotterdam, handling nearly 88 million tons of dry bulk traffic in 2005. This represents 9% of the combined dry bulk throughput of the 350 ports in the Eurostat database. Just as is the case for the liquid bulk market, Rotterdam owes its strong market position to its excellent nautical accessibility (it can receive dry bulk carriers of 300,000 dwt or more), coupled with very good links with major consumption centres in the hinterland (especially the German Ruhr area). Other major dry bulk ports, handling more than 25 million tons per year, include Hamburg (Germany), Antwerp (Belgium), Dunkirk (France), Taranto (Italy) and Amsterdam (Netherlands). Apart from these ports, 15 other ports handled between 10 and 25 million tons of dry bulk cargo in 2005. At the other end of the spectrum, more than 185 ports handled less than 1 million ton of dry bulk cargo.

 

Table 53: Overview of dry bulk handled in European seaports (2005)

Port

tons

Port

tons

Antwerp

26,684,613

Vassilico Vassiliko)

633,108

Ghent

3,054,649

Other Cypriotic ports

810,226

Zeebrugge

1,718,655

Cyprus

1,443,334

Oostende

991,903

Riga

14,938,364

Belgium

42,449,820

Ventspils

10,439,641

Varna

7,373,893

Liepaja

1,680,318

Burgas

3,008,167

Latvia

27,058,323

Bulgaria

10,382,060

Klaipeda

7,462,926

Enstedværkets Havn

3,501,770

Lithuania

7,462,926

Aalborg Portland

2,906,083

Malta (Valetta)

677,411

Århus

2,852,271

Other Maltese ports

2,262

Københavns Havn

2,071,110

Malta

679,673

Odense

2,045,933

Rotterdam

87,694,773

Asnæsværkets Havn

1,273,502

Amsterdam

25,107,777

Esbjerg

1,081,997

Velsen/Ijmuiden

18,666,451

Fredericia (Og Shell-Havnen)

1,031,794

Vlissingen

5,294,507

Aalborg

956,893

Terneuzen

3,742,709

Aabenraa

917,038

Delfzijl/Eemshaven

1,602,575

Kolding

899,228

Dordrecht

1,498,989

Rønne

886,485

Moerdijk

917,123

Randers

883,130

Vlaardingen

801,757

Køge

848,680

Harlingen

771,703

Studstrupværkets Havn

784,281

Other Dutch ports

128,114

Norjyllandsværkets Havn

657,111

Netherlands

146,226,478

Stigsnæsværkets Havn

551,134

Gdansk

9,273,949

Other Danish ports

1,660,02

Swinoujscie

6,666,268

Denmark

25,808,461

Szczecin

5,042,718

Hamburg

27,011,709

Gdynia

3,416,231

Bremen, Blumenthal

6,450,257

Police

2,086,060

Rostock

6,070,366

Poland

26,485,226

Bützfleth

2,660,582

Sines

5,801,572

Nordenham

2,402,055

Lisboa

5,203,093

Brake

2,169,433

Setúbal

3,224,270

Wilhelmshaven

1,902,812

Leixões

2,301,129

Wismar

1,715,976

Aveiro

1,416,233

Brunsbüttel

1,100,480

Other Portuguese ports

484,148

Lübeck

969,895

Portugal

18,430,445

Kiel

739,202

Constanta

18,103,190

Flensburg

551,921

Other Romanian ports

661,268

Other German ports

1,195,886

Romania

18,764,458

Germany

54,940,574

Koper

7,731,876

Tallinn

6,975,427

Slovenia

7,731,876

Other Estonian ports

660,677

Raahe

4,731,628

Estonia

7,636,104

Kokkola

2,709,032

Limerick

9,140,956

Pori

2,241,155

Dublin

1,904,046

Kotka

1,927,939

Cork

1,572,570

Rauma

1,517,683

Waterford

804,438

Inkoo

1,256,830

New Ross

603,558

Koverhar

1,129,189

Other Irish ports

678,395

Helsinki

959,823

Ireland

14,703,963

Parainen

886,985

Volos

7,936,157

Naantali

883,877

Larymna

4,296,759

Uusikaupunki

811,360

Thessaloniki

3,395,929

Kemi

772,516

Aliverio

3,291,121

Pietarsaari

730,546

Eleusina

2,969,907

Other Finnish ports

3,124,832

Milos Island

2,889,663

Finland

23,683,395

Almyros (Amaliapoli) Volou

2,506,300

Luleå

7,135,761

Chalkida

1,628,890

Oxelösund (ports)

4,211,861

Itea

1,405,638

Karlshamn

2,699,808

Antikyra

1,296,946

Storugns

2,503,999

Politika (074)

1,205,320

Slite (ports)

2,317,922

Rio

1,134,524

Stockholm

1,022,408

Kavala

1,067,136

Köping

991,615

Heraklio

824,489

Skellefteå

989,047

Nafplio

657,636

Norrköping

873,247

Igoumenitsa

652,925

Halmstad

812,336

Other Greek ports

947,947

Västerås

721,196

Greece

38,107,287

Malmö

597,861

Gijón

19,663,187

Uddevalla

571,599

Tarragona

11,915,749

Helsingborg

500,756

Ferrol

8,289,625

Other Swedish ports

1,801,779

Huelva

7,530,686

Sweden

27,751,195

Valencia

6,360,690

Immingham

20,735,227

Almería

6,306,756

London

15,002,694

Santander

5,139,651

Tees & Hartlepool

12,401,973

Cartagena

5,027,915

Clydeport

11,281,993

La Coruña

4,437,796

Liverpool

8,891,227

Bilbao

4,261,135

Port Talbot

8,569,720

Barcelona

3,532,003

Bristol

6,415,974

Castellón

3,293,592

Medway

5,471,213

Pasajes

3,273,904

Glensanda

5,438,705

Avilés

3,082,737

Hull

3,784,965

Sevilla

2,813,380

Belfast

3,444,407

Algeciras

2,652,267

Southampton

2,234,526

Cádiz

2,557,444

Newport, Gwent

2,072,789

Palma Mallorca

2,389,763

Tyne

1,920,976

Málaga

2,100,472

Ipswich

1,817,462

Santa Cruz de Tenerife

1,892,082

Manchester

1,658,800

Las Palmas

1,785,378

Forth

1,650,822

Alicante

1,667,539

Shoreham

1,382,108

Molina de Segura

1,234,823

Fowey

1,270,154

Marín-Pontevedra

1,016,240

River Hull & Humber

983,447

Vigo

692,535

Ballylumford

976,836

Villagarcía (de Arosa)

578,413

Trent River

861,106

Other Spanish ports

155,656

Plymouth

832,969

Spain

113,651,418

Newhaven

659,216

Dunkerque

26,314,341

Londonderry

655,932

Marseille

15,363,075

Other UK ports

5,046,796

Nantes Saint-Nazaire

8,348,756

United Kingdom

125,462,037

Rouen

8,040,885

Bakar

2,242,427

Le Havre

4,848,293

Ploce

2,196,708

La Rochelle

3,266,933

Split

1,362,296

Bordeaux

2,648,341

Pula

807,247

Sète

1,768,116

Rabac

726,424

Bayonne

1,569,330

Rijeka

512,835

Lorient

1,455,032

Other Croatian ports

1,190

Port Réunion (ex Pointe-des-Galets)

1,290,686

Croatia

7,849,127

Brest

1,041,243

Narvik

15,921,615

Calais

827,004

Porsgrunn Ports

5,589,901

Port-la-Nouvelle

749,859

Bergen Ports

2,575,692

Guadeloupe (Guadeloupe)

723,138

Haugesund Ports

2,554,026

Caen

592,521

Brønnøy

1,931,784

Other French ports

1,132,204

Kristiansund N/Grip

1,852,343

France

79,979,757

Mo i Rana/Rana

1,798,880

Taranto

25,453,936

Oslo

1,329,626

Ravenna

12,962,076

Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg

1,281,702

Venezia

11,224,317

Stavanger Ports

1,248,499

Brindisi

6,339,720

Drammen Ports

1,044,766

Portovesme

4,514,519

Verdal/Levanger

793,962

Savona-Vado

4,467,391

Trondheim/Flakk

685,347

Piombino

4,375,254

Kristiansand S

586,807

Genova

3,551,330

Moss

571,880

Porto Torres

2,179,487

Other Norwegian ports

11,244,799

Trieste

2,130,276

Norway

51,011,629

La Spezia

1,853,761

   

Ancona

1,548,162

   

Chioggia

1,537,450

Total all ports

977,021,358

Oristano

1,502,718

   

Bari

1,258,013

   

Livorno

1,235,020

   

Monfalcone

1,060,197

   

Napoli

1,036,517

   

Civitavecchia

1,025,408

   

Marina Di Carrara

1,015,161

   

Porto Empedocle

936,783

   

Augusta

896,868

   

Pozzallo

853,816

   

Manfredonia

811,342

   

Barletta

801,491

   

Salerno

761,102

   

Gaeta

604,005

   

Porto Nogaro

500,279

   

Other Italian ports

2,885,393

   

Italy

99,321,792

   

Source: Eurostat

 

 

Overview of main developments in the European dry bulk market during 2006

Development of the bulk carrier fleet in 2006

  • According to Clarkson Research Services Ltd, the world bulk carrier fleet counted 6369 units at the end of 2006, for a combined capacity of 367.9 million dwt. This represents an increase of some 7% compared to the year before. At the end of 2006 worldwide orderbooks counted no less than 1138 bulk carriers (of which 354 to be delivered in 2007) for a combined capacity of 89.42 million dwt. This is some 24% of the bulk carrier fleet capacity at the end of 2006. Finally, 49 bulk carriers were sent to the scrapyards in 2006, for a combined 1.87 million dwt capacity.

 

Port/terminal development in Europe (non-exhaustive)

  • A new facility at OBA Bulk Terminal Amsterdam, one of Europeís largest bulk terminals, consisting of a 365m quay and a 10 ha storage and handling area, opened in October 2006. This will give the terminal an annual throughput capacity of 4m tons. Further development will include two Capesize quays and an additional 20-25ha of storage area. This year, LBH is going to build an indented berth, 400m long and 80m wide, for barges. When these projects are completed, Amsterdamís coal handling facilities will have been expanded from 85ha to 115ha.
  • The Port of Imminghamís £59.5 m dedicated coal-handling facility, Humber International Terminal 2 (HIT 2), was officially opened in May 2006. HIT 2 is located close to six of Britainís largest power stations. It was developed to meet the power-generation industryís escalating demand for coal. The terminal can handle an estimated 9.5m tons of coal each year. In August 2006 the facility handled a record-breaking total of 1.095m tons, of which 1.022m tons was coal. HIT 2 extends Humber International Terminalís total quay length by 220m, giving a total of 520m, and can accommodate vessels carrying more than 100,000 tons of cargo.
  • In August 2006, Associated British Ports (ABP) announced to invest £3.7m in two new Gottwald cranes for Humber International Terminal 1, the dedicated dry bulk handling terminal at the port of Immingham.
  • Following the signing of a new 20-year agreement with Solent Stevedores, ABP is investing £4.1m in upgrading the handling and storage facilities at Southamptonís Bulk Terminal. The investment comprises £1.6m earmarked for a new mobile harbour crane, and £2.5m for a new multi-purpose transit shed, which will be completed in 2007. ABP has also invested over £700,000 on upgrading the handling equipment in Ayr.
  • In addition to ABPís investment, Solent Stevedores has spent approximately £350,000 on shore-side equipment in the port of Southampton in 2006, with additional investments of £250,000 planned for 2007 and 2008. A new high-capacity screw-type ship unloader has been commissioned at the Seaforth Grain Terminal, which enables bulk carriers of up to 75,000dwt to be discharged at the terminal with unloading capacities of up to 1,800 tons per hour.
  • Workington, the largest port in Cumbria, has invested over £8m in the latest phase of developments at Battleship Wharf with new carnage already in place capable of discharging over 10,000 tons of cargo per day. The port opened a new rail link in September in 2006 with a quay extension due for completion by the end of the year. The port is investing approximately £7.8m in the upgrade of its main bulk terminal, Battleship Wharf. It is to construct a 155m quay extension, build a rail link, improve site infrastructure and upgrade support vehicles. This is in addition to the new 100 ton capacity harbour crane that was purchased earlier 2006. This is the biggest investment by the port in decades and has been implemented to cope with the increasing bulk trades being handled at the port.
  • ABPís port of Teignmouth took an important step forward when the Western Quays was officially opened during August 2006. The Western Quays is the product of a £5m investment by ABP and represents a huge enhancement of the portís cargo-handling facilities.
  • A number of new developments were completed at Dunkirkís multibulk facilities in the central area of the port. The Vracs du Nord cement terminal that exports ground slag produced by the new crushing plant of Ciment des Flandres, and the Dunkerque Multibulk Terminal, which has facilities for handling and storing under cover of powdered bulk products, were both completed in 2006.

 

Other significant developments (non-exhaustive)

  • The containerization of bulks is a rapidly developing sector. As an example, it has now become cheaper to move barley and other grains in containers to Asia than using Panamax Bulk carriers. Port logistics and terminal operator Société Havraise de Gestion et de Transport (SHGT) has recently invested Ä 2m in developing a system to put sugar in containers in the port of Le Havre.
  • Despite being a relative newcomer on the dry bulk market, "K" Line (Europe) already established several contracts, both long and short term, with major European steel mills, trading houses and power companies worldwide. A new Capesize vessel of 185,500 dwt was to be delivered in the first half of 2006.
  • In early 2007 Navios Maritime Holdings (Greece) took over Kleimar, the dry bulk shipping company of Belgiumís Sea-Invest group, for a reported Ä128 million. The Kleimar fleet, specialized for the transport of coal and iron ore, comprises 30 vessels of which 20 Capesizes and 10 Panamaxes. In 2005 Kleimar transported some 27 million tons of dry bulk cargo. Sea-Invest is one of the largest (if not the largest) bulk handling companies in Europe, active in the handling and storage of such commodities as iron ore, coal, fertilizers and liquid bulk. It is also a major player on the European fruit handling scene.

Source: International Bulk Journal and various trade press articles

 

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