April 14, 2011
- Depressing analysis of Unioncamere Uniontrasporti and the quality of infrastructure in Italy
- Unrecoverable delay in execution of works. Absolute lack of financial resources for the development of networks
- Given the disappointing outcome of the analysis made by the first report on the state of infrastructure in Italy and Unioncamere Uniontrasporti, the conference organized to present the document, which was held today in Rome, could not have been more appropriate title: "Infrastructure. The time to change tack. "
- The report shows that forty years ago, Italy had a total of almost four thousand kilometers of highways, second only to Germany which had more than six thousand. Today, Italy has 6,600 km of motorways, while Germany has almost 13 thousand. In nine years, while slowing much investment, the latter nation has built about one thousand kilometers of highways in Italy and were made only 151 km.
- Even more depressing analysis on the state railways.Of the 16 thousand kilometers of track operated by the Italian railway network, only a thousand are high speed and travels the South is still largely on a single track lines.
- As for ports, despite the nearly 800 berths, the situation is paradoxical: low intermodal connections; fugitives synergies with other facilities; bound by the proximity of urban centers and unable to grow, the Italians lost the challenge with the major ports of the North Europe.
- Meanwhile, only three of the 18 works in the Law strategic objectives have been achieved, while spending on infrastructure has been declining steadily. "The costs of inaction - said the president of Unioncamere, Ferruccio Dardanello - undermine the ability of our businesses to recover the ground lost in recent years of economic crisis and undermine the future development of our territories. After growth of 25% of public investment in infrastructure in Italy between 1997 and 2004, we experienced a negative trend - still ongoing - that reported the amount of investments in absolute levels of the mid-90s. Yet the combination of infrastructure development is the only one on which we can play some challenge to open ourselves to Europe and the overseas market. "
- The report analyzes in detail the Italian road network that, with the exception of municipal roads, has a length of 183,705 kilometers, of which 4% are highways, other roads 11% of national interest (roads) and 86% regional and provincial roads. The motorway network (total 6630 km) has a tight weave in the North, especially in the Po Valley. As you go down south jersey gets thinner and there are whole areas that are not covered, especially in the center where, for example Umbria has only 59 km of motorways on just over five thousand kilometers of the overall network.
- The state highways (19,000 km) recorded a double extension in the South than in other areas. The main contribution is that of the peninsular regions with more than 51mila km. The remaining divisions have a fairly similar number of miles between them. In general, regional and provincial roads over 80% in all areas. However, while North West, North East and Central have a breakdown of the road network fairly homogeneous in the various classes together, in the South there are whole regions such as Sardinia, Basilicata and Molise, where the freeways are completely absent or marginal.
- The report highlights the criticality of the road network.First, lacking the idea of economic growth that recognizes the crucial role of infrastructure investment, not only maps but in their complex networks and nodes. In addition, the modernization of the road network is still years, especially in the highway. The Law "had planned interventions designed to address this deficiency by establishing a specific plan, but often these measures were stopped because of lack of funds. Finally, it is the prevalent use of the road rules for people and cargo, with serious congestion on main roads: road travel in Italy 91% of the domestic market, while passengers move 82% of cases by private means.
- The rail network run by Italian Railway Network has a total extension of 16,701 km of which about 60 km abroad. The km of additional lines, which represent the top of the river connecting regional and connecting together the main lines are 56% of the network and are mainly in the South. The lines of (a high density of traffic and a high-quality infrastructure) affect the guidelines for the north-south and crossing the boundaries between the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic.The double-track lines are 45% of the total are almost entirely electrified (7,431 km). The lines are all diesel-powered single-track.
- The South has the largest extension of railways (5,730 km), but also the highest number of single track km (roughly the 2 / 3) and about 41% of the overall network is electrified. Below you will find the North West with 4,154 km. The division accounts for the largest number of km electrified is the North East with 80%, while the center is the area that has the widest network of double track (2016 km or 58% of the total network of distribution).
- The rail network high-speed / high capacity extends about 1,000 km. The project involved the construction of 661 km of new lines and upgrading of the "direct route" Rome-Florence (254 km). Through six regions and one territory in which he lives and works more than 65% of the population.
- Among the main problems of the Italian rail network include: the distribution throughout the territory, in many parts of the country rests on the service networks and non-electrified single track, in regional transport the audience noted the use of poor quality material, ancient and little comfortable, with large uncertainties about the perennial delays in arrival times.Also in Italy the liberalization has proven ineffective for the way it has been implemented and many players complain about the presence of strong barriers to entry imposed by the network operator for Trenitalia. Finally, with regard to the goods, there continues to be a head of state investment in the sector. According to Eurostat statistics on the Italian network travels only 11% of the goods.
- On the waterfront, along the coasts of the Italian peninsula, there are 534 structures including commercial and tourist ports, to which are added other structures used as private moorings or emergency that brings the total to about 800. In recent years there has been a consistent increase in the number of ports to be attributed mainly to the increase of facilities dedicated to pleasure boating. The Tyrrhenian side is where there are as many ports with about 350 structures. The division that offers better provision and the South with 285 ports, while there are about 165 to 84 North and the Centre.
- What varies is the type of port infrastructure.In fact the south are mainly multi-purpose ports, specialized in offering multiple services ranging from commercial goods and passengers on the tourist market. In the North, however, there is a greater number of specialized ports for navigation traffic (marine).
- The major businesses of the main port on the national total have a budget of 1,674 berths, for a total extension of about 375 km, dedicated to different types of traffic. Most of the berths offers services for passengers (383) and movements ro-ro (275, using vessels on which it is possible to load trucks or motor vehicles, with or without passenger service) and for packaged goods (245) and have railway track. However, only one third of these is directly connected to the national railway network.
- The main problems affecting the transport by sea are the following: historically the most developed ports incorporated into the fabric of the city, which has prevented (and prevent) the expansion in the hinterland, there are a few logistics activities added value, unlike the major European ports (Rotterdam, Hamburg, Barcelona); are scarce links with other modes of transport are modest synergies with other infrastructure and each node infrastructure continues to operate in isolation and often compete with others with which it would be beneficial to create integrations. Finally, the Italian ports suffer from competition from Atlantic ports: the top ten ports in Europe for only four tonnes of cargo handled on the Mediterranean (Marseilles, Algeciras, Valencia, Genoa, which is the tenth).
- In aviation, the Italian airport system is based on 37 operational scale distributed in all the macro and regional breakdowns. The largest number of stations is located in the South with 14 airports (38%). Flying over Italy a total of 210 airlines from airlines, European airlines, low-cost and charter carriers. The non-European airlines operate all over Rome Fiumicino and Malpensa in some cases even up.
- The settlement of the carriers low-cost in many secondary staircase as a result of agreements with the management company of airports and local authorities has resulted in a sector organization that is far from a hub and spoke, focusing on two main poles of Rome and Milan. In contrast, the national departments to create a real web of connections.
- The strategies of the airport operators and local institutions to make multiple destinations (tourist, cultural, conference, business) easily accessible and attractive, so intertwined with the interests and the type of transport supply represented by low-cost. Competing in an environment characterized by the dominant presence of low-cost means to develop agreements with their co-marketing and commercial plan, implement, enhance and promote the channels of transfer from the airport, transfer to consider the planning of the need to coordinate with flights coming from the main basin of each area of interest, invest in the airports market leader in each catchment area, position the organization of the airport in the low-cost transportation, tourism development proposals in line with the strategies of low-cost .
- Finally the report highlights the lack of funding for strategic infrastructure. The Program of the Strategic Infrastructure program has allowed many works already in the Law goal. The total value of the program amounted to 231 billion euro. To date, however, are completed, contractors and / or operating sites for € 62 billion are under contract and works for about six billion euro. Finally, ongoing investment of € 68 billion.
- Italy, although affected by the implementation of four priority projects of the trans-European transport network (TEN-T), has been implementing a very low. The delays are partly explained by the lack of financial resources for the implementation of the works of European strategic interest. To complete, from 2008, the implementation of priority projects, the demand is estimated at more than 60 billion euro. A part of this requirement, amounting to ten billion euro, must be covered by national funds to permit completion of the works planned for the period 2008-2013, but until now were available only seven billion euro. And after 2014, it will take about 50 billion euro for the completion of the railway infrastructure of European interest.