testata inforMARE
29 janvier 2023 - Année XXVII
Journal indépendant d'économie et de politique des transports
13:27 GMT+1
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FORUM des opérateurs maritimes
et de la logistique

ESPO
ANNUAL REPORT 2006-2007

 

5. The liquid bulk market

5.1 Crude oil production and seaborne liquid bulk trades

As mentioned in the first chapter of this Market Report, the seaborne liquid bulk trade amounted to 2.42 billion tons in 2005, of which 1.86 billion tons crude oil and 0.57 billion tons oil products. Table 34 provides an overview of the world crude oil production for selected years. As this table indicates, OPEC member countries accounted for about 43% of world crude oil production in 2005. This is roughly the same share as in 2000 but significantly up on the 37% market share in 1990. Among the non-OPEC member countries, the most important crude oil producers are the Former USSR (10.94 million barrels per day in 2005), the United States (5.12m barrels), China (3.62m barrels), Norway (2.55m barrels) and the United Kingdom (1.64m barrels). Between them, these five non-OPEC countries produced 23.87 million barrels per day in 2005 or exactly one third of worldwide crude oil production.

 

Table 34: World crude oil production for selected years ('000 barrels per day)

 

1980

1990

2000

2005

Algeria

1,020

784

796

1,352

Indonesia

1,576

1,299

1,273

1,059

Iran

1,467

3,135

3,661

4,092

Iraq

2,646

2,113

2,810

1,913

Kuwait

1,664

859

1,996

2,573

Libya

1,832

1,389

1,347

1,693

Nigeria

2,058

1,727

2,054

2,366

Qatar

471

406

648

766

Saudi Arabia

9,901

6,413

8,095

9,353

UAE

1,702

1,763

2,175

2,378

Venezuela

2,165

2,135

2,891

3,128

Total OPEC

26,502

22,021

27,745

30,673

World total

59,696

59,116

65,880

71,763

OPEC share

44.4%

37.3%

42.1%

42.7%

Source: OPEC (2006)

Whereas OPEC member countries accounted for 42.7% of worldwide crude oil production in 2005, their market share in crude oil exports was 50.9% (Table 35). Other major crude oil exporters in 2005 were located in Eastern Europe (more particularly Russia), Africa (in particular Nigeria, Libya and Algeria) and Latin America (in particular Venezuela and Mexico). The most important crude oil exporters in Western Europe are Norway and the United Kingdom.

 

Table 35: World crude oil production and exports for selected years ('000 barrels per day)

Production

2000

2005

Exports

2000

2005

North America

7,213

6,480

North America

1,227

1,654

Latin America

9,317

10,207

Latin America

5,054

5,572

Eastern Europe

7,625

11,098

Eastern Europe

4,145

7,531

Western Europe

6,288

4,904

Western Europe

4,960

4,406

Middle East

21,415

22,764

Middle East

16,017

17,186

Africa

6,771

8,857

Africa

5,173

6,478

Asia-Pacific

7,252

7,434

Asia-Pacific

2,266

1,905

Total World

65,880

71,763

Total World

38,842

44,730

OPEC members

27,745

30,673

OPEC members

20,527

22,774

OPEC share

42.1%

42.7%

OPEC share

52.8%

50.9%

Source: OPEC (2006)

 

38

To be more precise, West Asia includes Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

An overview of the main loading and unloading areas for crude oil in 2005 is given in Table 36. Not surprisingly, this table illustrates the dominance of Middle Eastern countries, which are included under the 'West Asia' heading38, as far as loading is concerned. Major unloading regions include North America, Europe, South and East Asia, and Japan.

 

Table 36: Loading and unloading areas for crude oil in 2005 (million tons)

Area

Loaded

Unloaded

Area

Loaded

Unloaded

North America

22.2

537.70

Caribbean. Central and North America

125.2

35.1

Europe

63.5

438.40

South America North and East

122.4

52.7

Japan

0

215.00

South America West

30.2

15.9

Australia/New-Zealand

11.2

33.10

Subtotal developing countries in America

277.8

103.7

South Africa

0

15.30

West Asia

934.5

9.9

Subtotal DMECs

96.9

1,239.5

South and East Asia

62.2

313.9

Central and Eastern Europe

132.3

10.5

Subtotal developing countries in Asia

996.7

323.8

Socialist countries of Asia

22.2

115.3

Developing countries in Europe

0

7

North Africa

130.2

49.3

Developing countries in Oceania

4.2

0

West Africa

196.3

3.7

Subtotal developing countries

1,605.2

488.2

East Africa

0

0.7

     

Subtotal developing countries in Africa

326.5

53.7

World total

1,856.6

1,853.5

Source: UNCTAD (2006)

 

A similar picture is obtained from Table 37, which depicts the export-import matrix for seaborne crude oil in 2004, the most recent year for which this detailed information is available.

 

Table 37: Export-Import matrix for seaborne crude oil trade in 2004 (million tons)

From/to

NW Eur.

Medit.

N.Amer.

S.Amer.

Japan

Other Asia

Others

Total

Middle East Gulf

65.8

62.9

130.0

10.6

179.9

352.7

30.3

832.2

Near East

0.1

11.0

1.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.2

North Africa

14.5

67.9

21.8

4.0

0.3

5.0

1.0

114.5

West Africa

5.2

21.2

91.7

9.0

7.6

67.4

3.7

205.8

Caribbean

5.0

8.5

189.1

12.5

0.1

6.0

0.3

221.5

SE Asia

0.0

0.0

5.3

0.0

10.2

25.3

15.4

56.2

North Sea

2.3

8.2

46.4

0.6

0.1

4.1

0.2

61.9

Others

88.1

67.2

40.3

14.3

2.2

32.0

5.7

249.8

Total

181.0

246.9

525.7

51.0

200.4

492.5

56.6

1,754.1

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

 

Secondly, an overview of the main loading and unloading areas for oil products, which include products such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petrol gas (LPG), naphta, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, light oil and heavy oil, is given in Table 38. In contrast to the crude oil trade, a significant amount of oil products is loaded in developed market-economy countries. On the other hand, developing countries in Africa represent a relatively small market share. As far as unloading of oil products is concerned, developing market-economy countries have a market share of 50%.

 

Table 38: Loading and unloading areas for oil products in 2005 (million tons)

Area

Loaded

Unloaded

Area

Loaded

Unloaded

North America

72.9

144.20

Caribbean. Central and North America

43.4

37.8

Europe

41.8

104.50

South America North and East

73

8.6

Japan

4.3

32.50

South America West

2.2

5.9

Australia/New-Zealand

2.8

6.80

Subtotal developing countries in America

118.6

52.3

South Africa

0

0.90

West Asia

113.9

9.3

Subtotal DMECs

121.8

288.9

South and East Asia

109.9

155.5

Central and Eastern Europe

44.9

3.2

Subtotal developing countries in Asia

223.8

164.8

Socialist countries of Asia

16.4

37.7

Developing Countries in Europe

2.3

2.2

North Africa

35.8

7.9

Developing Countries in Oceania

0.1

6.2

West Africa

1.6

4.2

Subtotal developing countries

382.2

242.8

East Africa

0

5.2

     

Subtotal developing countries in Africa

37.4

17.3

World total

565.3

572.6

Source: UNCTAD (2006)

 

5.2 Some key figures on the tanker fleet

Table 39 provides an overview of the tanker fleet for selected dates. At the first of July 2006 the total fleet reached 399.97m dwt, a 20.9% increase compared to the beginning of 2002. This is slightly lower than the 22.4% increase in the dwt capacity of the world merchant fleet over the period considered. As a result, the share of tanker vessel capacity in the world fleet marginally decreased from 41.4% at the beginning of 2002 to 40.9% at mid-2006.

 

Table 39: Overview of the tanker fleet for selected dates

 

01-01-2002

 

01/07/2006

 

Growth

 

('000 dwt)

%

('000 dwt)

%

 

Oil tankers

303,234

91,7%

364,025

91.0%

20.0%

Chemical tankers

8,489

2.6%

10,344

2.6%

21.9%

Liquid gas tankers

18,994

5.7%

25,599

6.4%

34.8%

Total liquid bulk fleet

330,717

100%

399,968

100%

20.9%

World merchant fleet

799,763

978,522

22,4%

   

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006

)

 

As Table 39 indicates, more than 90% of the dwt capacity of the tanker fleet concerns oil tankers. They registered a 20% increase of their dwt capacity between the beginning of 2002 and mid-2006. A similar percentage increase applies to the chemical tanker fleet. Liquid gas tankers (LNG and LPG), on the other hand, registered a near 35% increase of their dwt capacity over the period considered, resulting in an increasing market share.

Table 40 provides an overview of the tanker fleet divided by dwt range for 01/01/2006. As far as oil tankers are concerned, vessels above 100,000 dwt represent hardly 15% of the total number of ships, but they provide some 65% of the total dwt capacity (the biggest oil tankers afloat measure some 441,000 dwt). On the other hand, all but one chemical tankers are below 50,000 dwt and all liquid gas tankers are in the 0-100,000 dwt range.

 

Table 40: Breakdown of the tanker fleet by dwt range (as at 01/01/2006)

 

Oil tankers

Chemical tankers

Liquid gas tankers

Dwt range

ships

'000 dwt

% dwt

ships

'000 dwt

% dwt

ships

'000 dwt

% dwt

0-9.999

4163

13.324

3.8%

1065

2.831

28.5%

740

2.330

9.6%

10,000-9,999

544

8,205

2.3%

136

2,098

21.1%

72

1,066

4.4%

20,000-49,999

1323

50,897

14.4%

152

4,911

49.4%

148

5,603

23.1%

50,000-69,999

239

14,960

4.2%

0

0

0.0%

104

6,213

25.6%

70,000-99,999

404

35,314

0.0%

0

0

0.0%

120

9,016

37.2%

100,000-149,999

530

62,041

17.5%

1

103

1.0%

0

0

0.0%

150,000-199,999

179

28,353

8.0%

0

0

0.0%

0

0

0.0%

200,000-299,999

289

80,784

22.9%

0

0

0.0%

0

0

0.0%

300,000-399,999

187

57,487

16.3%

0

0

0.0%

0

0

0.0%

400,000+

5

2,172

0.6%

0

0

0.0%

0

0

0.0%

Total liquid bulk fleet

7863

353,537

100%

1354

9.943

100%

1184

24.228

100%

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

Finally, Table 41 provides an overview of the total tanker fleet (controlled and registered) by region. As this table indicates, a significant share of the tanker fleet is controlled by European owners. This is especially the case for oil/chemical tankers and product tankers. On the other hand, due to the overwhelming importance of registers like Panama and Liberia in tanker shipping, the regional tonnage distribution shows a stronger concentration on Latin and South America, Asia and Oceania, and Africa when looking at fleet registry.

 

Table 41: World tanker fleet (controlled and registered) by region as at 01/01/2006 (percentages based on dwt)

   

Crude oil
tankers

Products
tankers

Oil/chemical
tankers

Chemical
tankers

Liquid gas
tankers

Controlled
fleet

Europe

40.7%

46.8%

62.0%

34.4%

30.9%

N.America

9.9%

7.5%

8.1%

11.0%

4.2%

Lat./S.America

1.4%

5.9%

1.0%

2.8%

1.0%

Asia/Oceania

43.8%

34.1%

22.8%

43.1%

54.2%

Africa

0.4%

0.3%

0.8%

2.1%

5.5%

Unknown

3.7%

5.4%

5.4%

6.6%

4.3%

 

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Registered
fleet

Europe

22.2%

25.0%

39.4%

21.7%

27.3%

N.America

1.6%

2.3%

1.3%

2.6%

0.0%

Lat./S.America

27.6%

22.6%

19.6%

31.5%

31.6%

Asia/Oceania

34.1%

36.9%

25.3%

26.2%

29.5%

Africa

14.4%

13.1%

14.4%

18.1%

11.5%

 

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Source: Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (2006)

 

5.3 European shipping companies active in the liquid bulk market

Table 42 provides a (non-exhaustive) overview of the main European shipping companies active in the liquid bulk market. As this table indicates, most of these companies are located in Scandinavia, Germany and Greece. Moreover, quite a number of them are also active in the dry bulk (DB) market.

 

Table 42: Main European shipping companies active in the liquid bulk market

Country

Shipping Company

DB

Country

Shipping Company

DB

Denmark

Torm

 

France

Fouquet Sacop

 

Denmark

Norden

X

France

Green Tankers

 

Denmark

Lauritzen

X

France

Broström SAS

 

Denmark

Maersk Tankers

 

Germany

Schulte group

X

Sweden

Fredriksen group

X

Germany

E. Oldendorff

X

Sweden

Broström

 

Germany

Ernst Jacob

 

Sweden

Stena Bulk-Concordia

 

Germany

Ahrenkiel group

 

Norway

Viken

 

Germany

Chemikalien

 

Norway

Eitzen Group

X

Germany

Gaschem

 

Norway

KG Jebsen

X

Germany

Essberger-Broere

 

Norway

Stolt Nielsen

 

Germany

Sloman Neptun

 

Norway

Odfjell

 

Germany

Poseidon Schiffahrt

X

Norway

Jo Tankers

 

Germany

ASP Shipmgt

X

Norway

Knutsen

 

Greece

GenMar

 

Norway

Höegh

 

Greece

Thenamaris

 

UK

Zodiac Maritime

X

Greece

Angelicoussis

X

Italy

Premuda

 

Greece

Dynacom

 

Italy

D'Amico Nav.

X

Greece

Tsakos

 

Italy

Bottiglieri

X

Greece

Polembros

X

Italy

Fratelli d'Amato

X

Greece

Gulf Marine

 

Italy

Nav. Montanari

 

Greece

Eastern Med. Mar.

 

Belgium

Euronav

 

Greece

Minerva Marine

 

Spain

Elcano

X

Greece

Centrofin Mgt.

 

France

Socatra

 

Greece

Hellespont

 

France

Petromarine

 

Greece

Aeolos

 

France

Navale française

 

Greece

Eletson

 

Source: Isemar (2007)

 

5.4 Liquid bulk cargo handled in European seaports

Table 43 provides an overview of liquid bulk traffic handled in a selection of European seaports. The table was drawn from a large Eurostat database containing about 330 ports, handling a total throughput of 1.58 billion tons of liquid bulk traffic in 2005. However, for the present Report we have limited ourselves to those seaports which handled at least 500,000 tons of liquid bulk traffic. This resulted in a total ports sample of nearly 180 individual ports spread across 24 different countries. Their combined liquid bulk throughput amounted to 1.55 billion tons in 2005, effectively representing 98% of the total liquid bulk throughput of the 330 ports in the Eurostat database.

39

In 2006 more than 28 million tons of crude oil was transported through the Rotterdam-Antwerp Pipe Line (RAPL).

40

In Tables 43 and 53 of this Market Report, "Bergen Ports" (Norway) includes Bergen, Mongstad, Sture, Ågotnes, Eikefet, Askøy and Modalen. Similarly, "Haugesund Ports" comprises Haugesund, Tysvær, Karmøy/Kårstø, Skudeneshavn and Kopervik. Next, "Porsgrunn Ports" includes Porsgrunn, Rafnes, Herøya, Brevik, Skien, Langesund and Voldsfjorden, while "Stavanger Ports" comprises Stavanger, Sola/Risavik, Forus, Dusavik and Mekjarvik. Finally, "Drammen Ports" includes Drammen, Solumstrand, Tørkopp, Lier, Hurum, Tofte and Svelvik.

As can be seen from Table 43, the lion's share of this volume was handled in ports in the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, France and Spain. Between them, these five countries accounted for 1.03 billion tons of liquid bulk traffic in 2005. On an individual port basis, by far the biggest liquid bulk port in Europe is Rotterdam, handling nearly 170 million tons in 2005. This represents more than 10% of the combined liquid bulk throughput of the 330 ports in the Eurostat database. One of the main reasons for Rotterdam's strong market position is its extremely favourable nautical accessibility for VLCC and ULCC vessels, coupled with its good connections with the major petrochemical clusters in Rotterdam and Antwerp39. Other major liquid bulk ports, handling more than 25 million tons per year, include Bergen Ports40 in Norway, Marseilles and Le Havre (France), Wilhelmshaven (Germany), Tees & Hartlepool, Milford Haven, Forth and Southampton (UK), Antwerp (Belgium), and Trieste and Augusta (Italy). Apart from these ports, 31 other ports handled between 10 and 25 million tons of liquid bulk cargo in 2005. At the other end of the spectrum, no less than 85 ports handled less than 1 million ton of liquid bulk cargo.

 

 

Table 43: Overview of liquid bulk traffic handled in European seaports (2005)

Port

tons

Port

tons

Antwerp

36,840,786

Larnaca (Larnaka) Oil Terminal

1,277,913

Zeebrugge

4,163,457

Vassilico (Vassiliko)

527,630

Ghent

3,339,664

Other Cypriotic ports

963,082

Other Belgian ports

69,735

Cyprus

2,768,625

Belgium

44,413,642

Ventspils

17,660,259

Burgas

8,912,930

Riga

3,516,307

Varna

788,839

Liepaja

663,2 6

Bulgaria

9,701,769

Latvia

21,839,782

Fredericia (Og Shell-Havnen)

15,188,845

Klaipeda

7,214,523

Statoil-Havnen

7,780,532

Butinge

6,126,919

Københavns Havn

3,137,249

Lithuania

13,341,442

Århus

1,731,271

Malta (Valetta)

1,090,550

Aalborg

1,086,053

Marsaxlokk

665,123

Esbjerg

552,226

Malta

1,755,673

Other Danish Ports

926,044

Rotterdam

167,869,712

Denmark

30,402,220

Amsterdam

18,846,79

Wilhelmshaven

43,644,543

Terneuzen

6,583,085

Hamburg

13,067,544

Vlissingen

3,779,905

Brunsbüttel

5,476,317

Moerdijk

2,093,788

Rostock

2,646,475

Vlaardingen

1,618,214

Bützfleth

2,317,451

Other Dutch ports

1,089,720

Bremen, Blumenthal

1,643,619

Netherlands

201,881,215

Emden

861,106

Gdansk

11,731,621

Nordenham

685,536

Gdynia

1,046,743

Other German ports

1,260,393

Szczecin

627,657

Germany

71,602,984

Other Polish ports

503,297

Tallinn

24,413,634

Poland

13,909,318

Miiduranna

2,025,245

Sines

18,552,681

Vene-Balti

1,021,845

Leixões

7,713,006

Other Estonian ports

122,444

Setúbal

1,716,537

Estonia

27,583,168

Lisboa

1,608,907

Cork

6,546,401

Aveiro

536,486

Dublin

4,037,405

Other Portuguese ports

704,927

Limerick

1,835,645

Portugal

30,832,544

Bantry Bay

825,458

Constanta

13,824,543

Other Irish ports

535,095

Midia

1,314,963

Ireland

13,780,004

Other Romanian ports

182,591

Agii Theodori

12,989,894

Romania

15,322,097

Megara

8,545,088

Koper

2,039,003

Thessaloniki

8,147,900

Slovenia

2,039,003

Eleusina

8,137,036

Sköldvik

17,349,524

Perama

841,001

Naantali

4,053,655

Heraklio

671,206

Hamina

1,703,243

Rhodes

658,466

Oulu

1,091,239

Other Greek ports

2,048,436

Kotka

1,075,660

Greece

42,039,027

Kokkola

939,185

Algeciras

21,447,343

Pori

664,298

Cartagena

20,847,760

Kemi

526,055

Bilbao

19,717,492

Other Finnish ports

2,465,252

Tarragona

17,904,143

Finland

29,868,111

Huelva

12,936,171

Göteborg

19,673,855

Barcelona

12,202,205

Brofjorden Preemraff

19,221,261

Santa Cruz de Tenerife

9,558,027

Stenungsund (Ports)

3,362,723

Castellón

8,949,177

Malmö

2,943,541

La Coruña

8,533,773

Nynäshamn (ports)

2,302,813

Las Palmas

4,798,070

Karlshamn

2,285,702

Palma Mallorca

2,067,814

Norrköping

1,351,987

Gijón

1,418,468

Gävle

1,320,899

Valencia

1,380,287

Oxelösund (ports)

1,251,887

Molina de Segura

1,322,436

Stockholm

1,051,850

Ferrol

822,346

Bergs Oljehamn

1,025,949

Avilés

740,096

Helsingborg

740,990

Ceuta

611,011

Sundsvall

561,170

Other Spanish ports

1,489,563

Skellefteå

541,849

Spain

146,746,182

Västerås

526,032

Marseille

65,688,272

Other Swedish ports

2,325,563

Le Havre

46,824,700

Sweden

60,488,071

Nantes Saint-Nazaire

23,637,552

Tees & Hartlepool

36,894,324

Dunkerque

14,849,408

Milford Haven

36,384,369

Rouen

10,748,084

Forth

29,100,329

Bordeaux

5,361,370

Southampton

28,170,916

La Rochelle

2,690,687

Immingham

24,291,746

Bayonne

1,699,189

Sullom Voe

20,492,480

Sète

1,585,398

London

20,170,666

Fort-de France (Martinique)

1,432,000

Kirkwall

14,372,940

Port-la-Nouvelle

1,421,839

Liverpool

13,148,158

Lorient

1,221,466

River Hull & Humber

8,637,580

Brest

1,121,865

Manchester

5,453,570

Guadeloupe (Guadeloupe)

764,304

Clydeport

3,498,541

Port Réunion (ex Pointe-des-Galets)

759,608

Cromarty Firth

3,115,021

Other French ports

251,111

Belfast

3,106,938

France

180,056,853

Medway

2,694,050

Trieste

35,818,499

Bristol

2,664,831

Augusta

31,994,840

Hull

2,438,029

Santa Panagia

23,254,246

Aberdeen

1,995,581

Porto Foxi

22,727,718

Plymouth

1,314,783

Genova

18,287,138

Cardiff

1,263,941

Milazzo

17,480,902

Dundee

662,685

Venezia

13,520,081

Peterhead

501,369

Livorno

8,901,205

Other UK ports

2,386,175

Gela

7,941,833

United Kingdom

262,759,022

Taranto

7,662,316

Omi'alj

7,120,774

Savona-Vado

7,646,096

Bakar

2,086,893

Fiumicino

6,541,600

Split

520,510

Napoli

5,833,409

Other Croatian ports

720,534

Ravenna

5,303,003

Croatia

10,448,711

Falconara Marittima

4,893,761

Bergen Ports

68,981,252

La Spezia

3,575,701

Tønsberg/Slagentangen/Valløy

9,637,77

Brindisi

2,814,240

Haugesund Ports

9,295,468

Porto Torres

2,738,915

Porsgrunn Ports

2,856,500

Civitavecchia

2,441,594

Oslo

1,927,885

Gaeta

1,944,235

Kristiansund N/Grip

1,781,600

Palermo

1,234,998

Bremanger

1,156,233

Lipari

1,231,125

Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg

894,089

Portovesme

1,089,976

Stavanger Ports

843,870

Vibo Valentia

905,728

Trondheim/Flakk

583,334

Ortona

838,963

Other Norwegian ports

5,603,160

Cagliari

603,237

Norway

103,561,162

Catania

523,051

   

Other Italian ports

3,931,391

   

Italy

241,679,801

Total all ports

1,578,820,426

Source: Eurostat

 

Overview of main developments in the European liquid bulk market during 2006

Development of the liquid bulk fleet in 2006

  • According to Clarkson Research Services Ltd, the world tanker fleet (vessels above 10,000 dwt) comprised 4278 vessels at the end of 2006, for a combined capacity of 363.9 million dwt. This represents an increase of some 6% compared to the end of 2005. At the end of 2006 worldwide tanker orderbooks counted no less than 1662 vessels (of which 511 to be delivered in 2007) for a combined capacity of 141.16 million dwt. This is a massive 39% of the tanker fleet capacity at the end of 2006. Finally, 74 tankers above 10,000 dwt were sent to the scrapyards in 2006, for a combined 2.96 million dwt capacity.
  • At the end of 2006, the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fleet fleet counted 1034 vessels for 15.30 million cubic metres (11.89 million dwt), a 5.8% increase compared to the end of 2005 (14.66 million cubic metres). At the end of 2006 the LPG orderbook comprised 189 vessels for a combined capacity of 6.90 million cubic metres. This represents some 45% of the fleet capacity at that time.
  • At the end of 2006, the liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleet fleet counted 222 vessels for 27.02 million cubic metres (15.03 million dwt), a 16.6% increase compared to the end of 2005 (23.17 million cubic metres). At the end of 2006 the LNG orderbook comprised 138 vessels for a combined capacity of 23.14 million cubic metres. This represents a staggering 86% of the fleet capacity at that time.
  •  

    Port/terminal development in Europe (non-exhaustive)

  • In many European seaports private companies are nowadays investing heavily in an increase of their tank storage capacity. The port of Antwerp is a prime example, with investment projects by such companies as Oiltanking Stolthaven, Vopak, ADPO and LBC. The investments concern both the expansion of existing facilities and the construction of new terminals on both banks of the River Scheldt.
  • Similarly, European seaports have also recently witnessed a proliferation of plans and projects for the construction of LNG terminals. Examples include the El Ferrol LNG Terminal in Mugardos (Galicia) and the Sagas Terminal in Sagunto (both with a 300,000 m' storage capacity), the expansion of the Isle of Grain LNG Terminal in the Medway estuary (comprising an additional 3 x 190,000 m' storage tanks), a new terminal in Milfordhaven developed by Dragon LNG as well as the South Hook LNG Terminal in the same port, plans for an offshore LNG reception terminal at Teesside ('GasPort'), the offshore regasification Terminal GNL Adriatico in Rovigo, an LNG terminal at Brindisi and plans for an LNG terminal in the port of Gdansk. Moreover, expansion of the Fluxys LNG terminal in Zeebrugge is in the pipeline, as well as new projects for LNG facilities in the port of Rotterdam.
  •  

    Other significant developments (non-exhaustive)

  • In September 2006 Maersk Tankers announced plans to expand its fleet by 14% per year up till 2009 in order to become one of the top-three tanker operators in the world. Its total fleet has grown by close to 9% per year over the last five years. The expansion will include its business both within VLCC crude carriers, product tankers, gas carriers and LNG carriers.
  • In December 2006 A.P. Møller-Mærsk A/S and Teekay Shipping Corporation announced an agreement to form Swift Tankers, a pool of Intermediate Product Tankers. The management company, named Swift Tankers Ltd, will provide safe and flexible solutions to customers by offering a large, homogenous fleet of double hull, ice-class Product Tankers of 10,000 to 20,000 dwt. The initial combined fleet comprises more than 20 vessels.
  • Source: Journal de la Marine Marchande (22/12/2006) and various trade press articles

     

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