testata inforMARE
4 décembre 2023 - Année XXVII
Journal indépendant d'économie et de politique des transports
01:58 GMT+1
FORUM des opérateurs maritimes
et de la logistique

The fishing vessel market in 2001


Tuna fish : what future ?

France and her overseas territories have accumulated an impressive "savoir faire" and a fishing fleet of 35 refrigerated tuna seiners, which places it as number seven after Spain, Taiwan, the U.S., Mexico and in the same group as Venezuela and Equator and tied with Japan.

The technological developments have allowed the fleet to be totally adapted to the needs of fishing, namely to track down by satellite (using thermal detection) favourable areas where banks of tuna are concentrated, but also Argos beacons, undetectable by competitors' ship radar, which give the position of artificial wrecks supposedly swarming with tuna and which float over thousand of nautical miles.

The main species of tuna are the bluefin (or red tuna), the albacora (or white tuna), the bigeye (or patudo), the yellowfin (or yellow-jawed tuna), and the skipjack (or listao).

No mention of this industry and its current status or future development can be made without reference to canned tuna, in France, Europe and the World, which consumes 60 % of the catch, whereas the other forms of conservation - fresh, frozen, smoked, dried' make up the rest.

The world resources of tuna and other fish cannot be indefinitely exploited without causing a rapid depletion in the stock and serious disruptions in the market. Fishing techniques, which are not controlled and restricted, are aggravating the supplies of tuna. The search for efficiency and higher returns has made spectacular progress from the so-called "californian" method to the "turning seine"? But other reasons have pushed certain fleets to go only after shoals of tuna on the surface, easy to encircle, by using extremely cheap manpower on seiners with ever-increasing capacity (up to 1,500 tons). This is the development of fishing on artificial wrecks or FADs (Fish Aggregating Devices), which are tracked at great distance by satellite and occasionally are accompanied by exploration ships, the "auxiliary vessels".

Europeans have been able to track tuna on the move for a long time by using the "school" fishing technique and catch a higher percentage of yellowfins (neothunnus albacares), some 35 to 50 %, compared to Asians, who concentrate much more on the listao (katsuwonnus pelamis) which represent some 90 % of their take. Another serious problem posed by fishing off artificial wrecks, is that no selection is made between tuna, good for conservation and the young or small, which have little commercial interest and get destroyed, as is the case for the patudo (thunnus obesus), nowadays a particularly threatened specie.

Despite attempts to limit the catches on wrecks in the Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical Pacific, during the course of 2000 and this year, catches have again far exceeded what would be a reasonable amount for the normal market needs for conservation. In practice, the world fleet of big seiners remains around 400 units, but the average size of these ships has a tendency to grow on account of the increase in the "jumboisation" of hulls to expand their capacity to take on tuna, but also the introduction of new units of 110 metres long and with a 3,000 ton capacity. However the average age of the world tuna industrial fishing fleet is over 20 years, and even though orders of new vessels have currently stopped, one can reasonably expect to see a start-up again soon.

Record hauls are being recorded using the powerful modern techniques to supply too-many transformation installations, which are in surplus to a market that is growing very slowly in Europe and stagnating elsewhere. It is hardly surprising that the industry hit its worst crisis in 1999-2000, with the price of tuna at all time lows of 30 years ($ 350/t C&F Bangkok) and canned stocks oversupplied. A number of players have at last realised that it is high time to introduce measures aimed at protecting resources and to establish operating standards, which will allow the industry to remain permanently in business.

Fish - long liner - Ile Bourbon Ile Bourbon 
long liner, 55.50 m, blt 2001 by Piriou, operated by Armements R'unionnais


Consumer market evolution
Canned fish is easy to use but is becoming outdated. Nowadays, with constant changes in feeding habits, the "fast food" and "prepared meals" are the new fashion for eating. But while demand for fresh and prepared tuna is spreading, canned product still counts. Tuna remains in the forefront of canned fish and is the favoured choice for the production lines of the big distributors. This trend is based largely on special brand labelling from the main producers, reinforced with advertising and has, like most foodstore items, seen a development of "own brands" from the distributors.

In France the growth of tuna and vegetables in the "salad" market has stimulated production lines which assembly the tuna cuts, together with the other ingredients in highly mechanised fashion. Having a headstart over other European countries, we possess a complete logistic network for frozen tuna with advanced infrastructure, from the factories in Africa which supply directly into Europe "outside customs" to the conception and realisation of classic and innovative products distributed throughout Europe. Notwithstanding, the three main national companies have been taken over by multinationals (American, Moroccan, and recently Italian).

Italy has remained faithful to tuna in olive oil, but they rely more and more on imported cuts. Preparation is done in the traditional way from the whole tuna (tonno grezzo) on the spot, however legislation makes no differentiation between this method and that of canned cuts, either in Italy or throughout Europe or in the rest of the world. The Spanish, whose methods of preparation are to the taste of Italians, have seen the chance that the Italian market offers to develop their canned exports where they control two important national Italian brand names.

Spain has become a major player in the last decade of the 20th century. She possesses many advantages with her fishermen, industrialists, a dynamic entrepreneur spirit, and support from both her Government and from Europe. Next to tuna, the second in importance is the sardine, but with a prominent role that the canning of specially prepared sea-food (mariscos) plays in supporting a large number of small and medium-size companies with product that Asian suppliers are unable to provide. And while talk of mergers amongst the canning companies is on everybody's lips, it appears that our neighbours are very attached to the notion of keeping a family control in business. Meanwhile the Spanish tuna network is currently spreading "urbi et orbi" both within and outside Europe.

Finally it is to be noted that the tuna canning market has seen a remarkable growth in the U.K. In 1998, canned imports were even higher than that in France. Two big private brands, controlled by powerful international groups, supply the lion's share of the U.K. market. It is interesting to see that they do not have the integrated network with fishing boats' but they have exclusive partnership agreements with companies operating out of certain ACP countries on the Atlantic and Indian Ocean seaboards, a recognition of sorts that the French model developed over the past 30 years was not so bad after all.

Can aquaculture compete with traditional fishing?
Aquaculture, the more or less controlled breeding of aquatic species, although practised for several millions of years in China, has only seen an important development in the last 50 years in fresh water and the last 20 years in salt water. Figures from the FAO estimate the fish production at 92.3 million tons and 32.9 million tons for aquaculture, a total of 125.2 million tons (1999 figures).

In comparison to traditional fishing, the aquaculture production only represents a third of the fishing sector, but as nearly all the available resources are fully utilised in traditional fishing, an increase in supply can only come from the aquaculture end.

The seafarming production is very unevenly distributed between the various continents as the following table shows.

world seafarming production

Behind these figures lie a great diversity in the types of aquaculture practised.

Fresh water fish represent the largest seafarming production in the world, with 17 million tons produced in 1998, thanks to China and India. The breeding of herbaceous species has been encouraged for subsistence and has been integrated into production systems in rural areas. There is consequently few big commercial activities, apart from the red tilapia, for which there is a ready-made market.

The carnivorous fresh water species are for the most part bred in an intensive system fed with artificial food. These species are therefore expensive to produce, despite the important progress made in the conversion rates as well as production cost of the food. Fresh water salmon can be interesting to developing countries with mountainous areas which have natural cold water (below 18'C).

Compared to fresh water fish, the marine species represent a much smaller volume of production, with 781,000 tons (1998 figure). The species bred have a high commercial value and are for the most part carnivorous. The economic importance of species produced in aquaculture has allowed the financing of studies on the techniques of breeding done by governmental bodies and the breeders themselves. Apart from salmon, the species currently being bred are widespread, as each country has a tendency to produce the right fish for its own market. Salmon is a breed apart in that the control of the technical aspects of production has allowed such savings in costs and amazing results that it has been possible to move from a luxury item to one of a normal everyday consumption.

In aquaculture the main species are the sea bass, john dory, turbot, striped bass, the red drum and the tropical sea bass. Species whose habits are in the process of being fully controlled are the sole, cod, halibut, and youngs coming from a natural habitat are the grouper, snapper, tuna, and the sea bream

fmain fishing countries
In terms of traditional fishing, the main species caught are: peruvian anchovies (thanks to the end of the "el Nino" stream), the Alaskan pollock, the Atlantic herring, the skipjack tuna, and the chub mackerel.

The prospects of developing aquaculture, apart from the purely subsistence activity, lies essentially in the transfer of breeding techniques of species whose habits are now fully under control to countries which have very low production costs. In this way commercial breeding can be envisaged for a variety of species such as the marine shrimp, the catfish, or the barramunda. However the feasibility of such projects is highly conditional upon the supply of good quality food at low prices. In Europe one can foresee a development of aquaculture systems in closed circuits which provides a good solution to environmental concerns which are becoming more acute.

These very same ecological concerns are growing in importance and posing problems to traditional fishing. It is probable that fishing with the traditional trawl will decline given the damage done to the species being fished, and that there will be an important increase in longliners which are selective and have the merit of protecting the young and the reproduction cycles. There is a groundswell movement to have better controls on quotas, species fished, and the protection of the environment in order that the consumer will be able to maintain a choice between the quality of products from the sea delivered by the traditional fishing and a variety of cheaper products coming from aquaculture.

To our good readers, the trends and statistics have been supplied to us by Soci't' Cofrep'che (Paris). The developments concerning the future of the tuna industry have been made in collaboration with our friend Michel Delrue, well known in the international tuna world.

Shipping and Shipbuilding Markets in 2001


Au troisième trimestre, les transits des navires océaniques dans le canal de Panama ont diminué de -4,4%
Au cours des neuf premiers mois de 2023, le trafic maritime a diminué de -3,3%.
L'Assemblée de l'OMI a élu les membres de son Conseil pour l'exercice biennal 2024-2025
Jeudi, l'élection du président et du vice-président
BLS Cargo espère des mesures pour soutenir le transport ferroviaire de marchandises sur le corridor Rhin-Alpes
Pour pénaliser ce mode sont principalement les chantiers de construction, les prix des voies ferrées et de l'énergie.
Mardi à Livourne, la phase expérimentale des douanes et contrôles uniques sera lancée.
Le système favorise le contrôle coordonné et simultané des contrôles
Enregistrer le trafic maritime pour le mois de novembre dans le canal de Suez
2 264 navires transités (+ 4,3%)
Fincantieri va acquérir Remazel Engineering
La société se spécialise dans la conception et la fourniture d'équipements de haut niveau hautement personnalisés et de haute complexité.
FEPORT, ETA, EMPA et ECASBA exhortant la Commission européenne à évaluer sans délai l'impact négatif sur les ports européens de l'extension du SCEQE à l'expédition
Au troisième trimestre, l'indice du chiffre d'affaires des services de transport a marqué une tendance négative.
La variation conjoncturelle n'est rien
Au troisième trimestre, le port de Tanger Med a traité plus de 2,2 millions de conteneurs (+ 13%)
Anjra / Casablanca
Au cours des neuf premiers mois de 2023, le total a été de 6,1 millions de teu (+ 9,3%)
GPH a détecté des parts de Royal Caribbean dans des terminaux de croisière aux ports de Barcelone, Malaga, Singapour et Lisbonne
Le groupe américain a vendu 38% de la capitale de Barcelone Port Investments à Global Ports Holding.
En octobre, le trafic marchandises dans le port de Gênes a augmenté de 4,2%, tandis que celui de Savona-I a diminué de -0,9%.
En octobre, le trafic marchandises dans le port de Gênes a augmenté de 4,2%, tandis que celui de Savona-I a diminué de -0,9%.
La remarquable augmentation des cruciéristes se poursuit
Confitarma, urgent la simplification de l'ordre maritime italien
Coccia: la mise en œuvre rapide et concrète du Ddl n. 673 sera la première étape de la relance du drapeau italien
La taxe de transport suisse sera augmentée en Suisse pour financer le trafic ferroviaire transalpin.
5% de marge de TTPCT avec décompression à partir du 1er janvier 2025
En octobre, le trafic de marchandises dans les ports maritimes chinois a augmenté de 5,9%
En octobre, le trafic de marchandises dans les ports maritimes chinois a augmenté de 5,9%
Les seules charges à l'étranger et en provenance de l'étranger ont augmenté de 9,1%. Les conteneurs étaient égaux à 23 millions de teu (+ 2,9%)
Mattioli a confirmé le président de la Fédération de la mer
Élu le nouveau conseil pour les trois années 2024-2027
Sur le chantier de construction Monfalcone de la Fincantieri a été le lancement de la Mein Schiff Relax
La France évalue les possibilités de production autonome de carburant électronique pour la décarbonisation des avions et des navires
Une étude de l'ADEME envisage deux scénarios et estime les ressources nécessaires
Toujours un quart de la baisse des marchandises dans les ports de l'Union européenne
Au cours des trois premiers mois de 2023, à l'exception du vrac liquide en vrac, tous les types de cargaisons ont diminué
Meyer Turku a livré l'icône de la mer à Royal Caribbean International
Meyer Turku a livré le Icon of the Seas à Royal Caribbean International
Miami / Turku
Il a un tonnage brut de 250.800 tonnes et peut accueillir jusqu'à 5 610 passagers
Une délégation de Confitarma a été reçue par le gouvernement
Illusquer les besoins et les attentes, épuisés et non, du secteur des armateurs
Un ferry sans équipage bloqué en Sicile
En raison de la rupture du câble de la remorque, le navire "Lider Prestij" est resté dans le balme des vagues
Ellerman scelle un accord sur les créneaux horaires avec le MSC concernant les routes maritimes transatlantiques
Il entrera en vigueur le 1er janvier
AdSP du Nord de l'Adriatique, le Comité de gestion approuve la troisième modification du budget
Confirmation de l'ajustement de 25,15% des canons maritimes demanial pour 2024
Réorganisation de la direction des confectures du Nord-Est
Paolo Salvaro est confirmé à la présidence, tandis que Manuel Scortegagna est nommé vice-président.
Le GNV lance une nouvelle campagne de recrutement
La première date du lundi et du mardi à Naples
Groupe logistique Public Spinelli publie son premier budget de durabilité
Ok le transfert de la concession de Terminal Ferry Barcelona au Grimaldi Group
Barcelone / Naples
Délibération de l'autorité portuaire catalane après le feu vert de l'autorité antitrust
L'assemblée de l'OMI confirme à l'unanimité la nomination de Velasco comme secrétaire général
Le terme, d'une durée de quatre ans, débutera en janvier prochain.
Lancé à Ancône le navire de croisière Viking Vela
Il sera livré à la fin de 2024
Port de la Spezia, a signé le contrat pour la réalisation des nouvelles croisières
La Spezia
Deux bancs de la longueur de 393 et 339 mètres
D'Amico International Shipping fera partie de l'indice FTSE Italia Mid Cap
Comprend les 60 entreprises ayant la plus grande capitalisation boursière figurant sur les marchés MTA et MIV de Borsa Italiana
Santi Casciano nommé PDG de Going Gateway et de Reefer Terminal
Il prendra ses fonctions le 15 décembre
Rexi: a signé les conventions avec 12 interports pour plus de 11 millions destinés à l'achèvement du réseau
L'avis d'un montant supplémentaire de huit millions d'euros sera publié sous peu.
Saipem a attribué deux contrats offshore d'une valeur d'environ 1,9 milliard de dollars
Sont liées aux activités au Guyana et au Brésil
Au port de Spezia, il a été facilité l'accès aux navires marchands alimentés au GNL
La Spezia
Le suak de ces unités est régi par une ordonnance de la Capitanerie de Porto
Visual Sailing List
- liste alphabétique
- liste des nations
- zones géographiques
Maersk Group sort de la capitale norvégienne Höegh Autoliners
Vendu les 20 derniers millions d'actions
Mettre fin aux opérations de désincitation des traversiers Lider Prestij
Vous procéderont maintenant à la vérification des normes de sécurité de la navigation.
Libéré le pétrolier Central Park
L'intervention de la Force maritime combinée TF 151 a forcé les attaquants à se désister et à se rendre
Un navire a été capturé dans le golfe d'Aden et un autre a été touché par un drone dans l'océan Indien.
Les attaques contre le pétrolier "Central Park" et le "CMA CGM Symi"
Gruber Logistics a ouvert une nouvelle succursale en France
Il a son siège à Lyon et se concentrera sur la fourniture de services logistiques complets
Le Club de Propeller Ports de La Spezia et Marina di Carrara est né
Marina di Carrara
Dans l'association, le nombre de membres inscrits augmente à partir du port apusien.
Livraison des livraisons au sommet du réseau portuaire du détroit du détroit
Mega a rappelé les obstacles rencontrés tout au long de son mandat
Ports Italiens:
Ancône Gênes Ravenne
Augusta Gioia Tauro Salerne
Bari La Spezia Savone
Brindisi Livourne Taranto
Cagliari Naples Trapani
Carrara Palerme Trieste
Civitavecchia Piombino Venise
Interports Italiens: liste Ports du Monde: Carte
Armateurs Réparateurs et Constructeurs de Navires
Transitaires Fournisseurs de Navires
Agences Maritimes Transporteurs routiers
Conférence sur les changements dans la logistique portuaire
Il aura lieu au mois de décembre à Ravenne
Conférence d'Uniport sur l'avenir de l'italien
Elle aura lieu le 5 décembre à Rome.
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Ports cyber hack reveals Australia's 'vulnerability' to attack
(The New Daily)
Economy Minister: Anaklia port project developing “according to plan”, “no delays” in deadlines
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et de la logistique
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Conclure le processus d'autorisation de construire les tiroirs du nouveau barrage de foranea à Gênes pour aller en Ligure
Au départ, cinq seront mis en place pour la défense du chantier de construction.
Ok of the City Council at the Regulatory Plan of the Marina Port of Carrara
Marina di Carrara
La satisfaction de l'AdSP pour le feu vert au nouvel outil de planification attendu depuis 1981
Impala Terminals achète aux enchères le HES Hartel Tank Terminal à Rotterdam
La construction du terminal pour vrac liquide dans le port néerlandais sera complétée grâce à un nouvel investissement.
Un règlement d'application précise les modalités de gestion des compagnies maritimes pour le SCEQE
Il a été publié aujourd'hui au Journal officiel de l'Union européenne
Hapag-Lloyd inaugure un nouveau centre informatique à Chennai
Il est réalisé en partenariat avec les Solveresprits de l'Inde
L'OMMP tunisien a commandé six remorqueur au chantier naval turc Med Marine
Istanbul / La Goulette
Il s'agit de moyens dont la capacité de traction est de 60 tonnes
Rhenus Overland Italie achète Pesenti Transport & Logistique
La société possède une flotte de 25 tracteurs et 50 entre remorques et semi-remorques
Collaboration de Fincantieri et IIT pour la robotique appliquée à l'assistance et à la sécurité des opérateurs
Trieste / Gênes
Conférence sur les changements dans la logistique portuaire
Il aura lieu au mois de décembre à Ravenne
- Via Raffaele Paolucci 17r/19r - 16129 Gênes - ITALIE
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