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23 September 2023 - Year XXVII
Independent journal on economy and transport policy
03:46 GMT+2
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FORUM of Shipping
and Logistics


The fishing vessel market in 2001

 
 

Tuna fish : what future ?

France and her overseas territories have accumulated an impressive "savoir faire" and a fishing fleet of 35 refrigerated tuna seiners, which places it as number seven after Spain, Taiwan, the U.S., Mexico and in the same group as Venezuela and Equator and tied with Japan.

The technological developments have allowed the fleet to be totally adapted to the needs of fishing, namely to track down by satellite (using thermal detection) favourable areas where banks of tuna are concentrated, but also Argos beacons, undetectable by competitors' ship radar, which give the position of artificial wrecks supposedly swarming with tuna and which float over thousand of nautical miles.

The main species of tuna are the bluefin (or red tuna), the albacora (or white tuna), the bigeye (or patudo), the yellowfin (or yellow-jawed tuna), and the skipjack (or listao).

No mention of this industry and its current status or future development can be made without reference to canned tuna, in France, Europe and the World, which consumes 60 % of the catch, whereas the other forms of conservation - fresh, frozen, smoked, dried' make up the rest.

The world resources of tuna and other fish cannot be indefinitely exploited without causing a rapid depletion in the stock and serious disruptions in the market. Fishing techniques, which are not controlled and restricted, are aggravating the supplies of tuna. The search for efficiency and higher returns has made spectacular progress from the so-called "californian" method to the "turning seine"? But other reasons have pushed certain fleets to go only after shoals of tuna on the surface, easy to encircle, by using extremely cheap manpower on seiners with ever-increasing capacity (up to 1,500 tons). This is the development of fishing on artificial wrecks or FADs (Fish Aggregating Devices), which are tracked at great distance by satellite and occasionally are accompanied by exploration ships, the "auxiliary vessels".

Europeans have been able to track tuna on the move for a long time by using the "school" fishing technique and catch a higher percentage of yellowfins (neothunnus albacares), some 35 to 50 %, compared to Asians, who concentrate much more on the listao (katsuwonnus pelamis) which represent some 90 % of their take. Another serious problem posed by fishing off artificial wrecks, is that no selection is made between tuna, good for conservation and the young or small, which have little commercial interest and get destroyed, as is the case for the patudo (thunnus obesus), nowadays a particularly threatened specie.

Despite attempts to limit the catches on wrecks in the Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical Pacific, during the course of 2000 and this year, catches have again far exceeded what would be a reasonable amount for the normal market needs for conservation. In practice, the world fleet of big seiners remains around 400 units, but the average size of these ships has a tendency to grow on account of the increase in the "jumboisation" of hulls to expand their capacity to take on tuna, but also the introduction of new units of 110 metres long and with a 3,000 ton capacity. However the average age of the world tuna industrial fishing fleet is over 20 years, and even though orders of new vessels have currently stopped, one can reasonably expect to see a start-up again soon.

Record hauls are being recorded using the powerful modern techniques to supply too-many transformation installations, which are in surplus to a market that is growing very slowly in Europe and stagnating elsewhere. It is hardly surprising that the industry hit its worst crisis in 1999-2000, with the price of tuna at all time lows of 30 years ($ 350/t C&F Bangkok) and canned stocks oversupplied. A number of players have at last realised that it is high time to introduce measures aimed at protecting resources and to establish operating standards, which will allow the industry to remain permanently in business.

   
Fish - long liner - Ile Bourbon Ile Bourbon 
long liner, 55.50 m, blt 2001 by Piriou, operated by Armements R'unionnais

 

Consumer market evolution
Canned fish is easy to use but is becoming outdated. Nowadays, with constant changes in feeding habits, the "fast food" and "prepared meals" are the new fashion for eating. But while demand for fresh and prepared tuna is spreading, canned product still counts. Tuna remains in the forefront of canned fish and is the favoured choice for the production lines of the big distributors. This trend is based largely on special brand labelling from the main producers, reinforced with advertising and has, like most foodstore items, seen a development of "own brands" from the distributors.

In France the growth of tuna and vegetables in the "salad" market has stimulated production lines which assembly the tuna cuts, together with the other ingredients in highly mechanised fashion. Having a headstart over other European countries, we possess a complete logistic network for frozen tuna with advanced infrastructure, from the factories in Africa which supply directly into Europe "outside customs" to the conception and realisation of classic and innovative products distributed throughout Europe. Notwithstanding, the three main national companies have been taken over by multinationals (American, Moroccan, and recently Italian).

Italy has remained faithful to tuna in olive oil, but they rely more and more on imported cuts. Preparation is done in the traditional way from the whole tuna (tonno grezzo) on the spot, however legislation makes no differentiation between this method and that of canned cuts, either in Italy or throughout Europe or in the rest of the world. The Spanish, whose methods of preparation are to the taste of Italians, have seen the chance that the Italian market offers to develop their canned exports where they control two important national Italian brand names.

Spain has become a major player in the last decade of the 20th century. She possesses many advantages with her fishermen, industrialists, a dynamic entrepreneur spirit, and support from both her Government and from Europe. Next to tuna, the second in importance is the sardine, but with a prominent role that the canning of specially prepared sea-food (mariscos) plays in supporting a large number of small and medium-size companies with product that Asian suppliers are unable to provide. And while talk of mergers amongst the canning companies is on everybody's lips, it appears that our neighbours are very attached to the notion of keeping a family control in business. Meanwhile the Spanish tuna network is currently spreading "urbi et orbi" both within and outside Europe.

Finally it is to be noted that the tuna canning market has seen a remarkable growth in the U.K. In 1998, canned imports were even higher than that in France. Two big private brands, controlled by powerful international groups, supply the lion's share of the U.K. market. It is interesting to see that they do not have the integrated network with fishing boats' but they have exclusive partnership agreements with companies operating out of certain ACP countries on the Atlantic and Indian Ocean seaboards, a recognition of sorts that the French model developed over the past 30 years was not so bad after all.

Can aquaculture compete with traditional fishing?
Aquaculture, the more or less controlled breeding of aquatic species, although practised for several millions of years in China, has only seen an important development in the last 50 years in fresh water and the last 20 years in salt water. Figures from the FAO estimate the fish production at 92.3 million tons and 32.9 million tons for aquaculture, a total of 125.2 million tons (1999 figures).

In comparison to traditional fishing, the aquaculture production only represents a third of the fishing sector, but as nearly all the available resources are fully utilised in traditional fishing, an increase in supply can only come from the aquaculture end.

The seafarming production is very unevenly distributed between the various continents as the following table shows.

world seafarming production

Behind these figures lie a great diversity in the types of aquaculture practised.

Fresh water fish represent the largest seafarming production in the world, with 17 million tons produced in 1998, thanks to China and India. The breeding of herbaceous species has been encouraged for subsistence and has been integrated into production systems in rural areas. There is consequently few big commercial activities, apart from the red tilapia, for which there is a ready-made market.

The carnivorous fresh water species are for the most part bred in an intensive system fed with artificial food. These species are therefore expensive to produce, despite the important progress made in the conversion rates as well as production cost of the food. Fresh water salmon can be interesting to developing countries with mountainous areas which have natural cold water (below 18'C).

Compared to fresh water fish, the marine species represent a much smaller volume of production, with 781,000 tons (1998 figure). The species bred have a high commercial value and are for the most part carnivorous. The economic importance of species produced in aquaculture has allowed the financing of studies on the techniques of breeding done by governmental bodies and the breeders themselves. Apart from salmon, the species currently being bred are widespread, as each country has a tendency to produce the right fish for its own market. Salmon is a breed apart in that the control of the technical aspects of production has allowed such savings in costs and amazing results that it has been possible to move from a luxury item to one of a normal everyday consumption.

In aquaculture the main species are the sea bass, john dory, turbot, striped bass, the red drum and the tropical sea bass. Species whose habits are in the process of being fully controlled are the sole, cod, halibut, and youngs coming from a natural habitat are the grouper, snapper, tuna, and the sea bream

 
fmain fishing countries
In terms of traditional fishing, the main species caught are: peruvian anchovies (thanks to the end of the "el Nino" stream), the Alaskan pollock, the Atlantic herring, the skipjack tuna, and the chub mackerel.

The prospects of developing aquaculture, apart from the purely subsistence activity, lies essentially in the transfer of breeding techniques of species whose habits are now fully under control to countries which have very low production costs. In this way commercial breeding can be envisaged for a variety of species such as the marine shrimp, the catfish, or the barramunda. However the feasibility of such projects is highly conditional upon the supply of good quality food at low prices. In Europe one can foresee a development of aquaculture systems in closed circuits which provides a good solution to environmental concerns which are becoming more acute.

These very same ecological concerns are growing in importance and posing problems to traditional fishing. It is probable that fishing with the traditional trawl will decline given the damage done to the species being fished, and that there will be an important increase in longliners which are selective and have the merit of protecting the young and the reproduction cycles. There is a groundswell movement to have better controls on quotas, species fished, and the protection of the environment in order that the consumer will be able to maintain a choice between the quality of products from the sea delivered by the traditional fishing and a variety of cheaper products coming from aquaculture.


To our good readers, the trends and statistics have been supplied to us by Soci't' Cofrep'che (Paris). The developments concerning the future of the tuna industry have been made in collaboration with our friend Michel Delrue, well known in the international tuna world.
 

Shipping and Shipbuilding Markets in 2001

I N D E X

›››File
FROM THE HOME PAGE
In view of the entry into force of the new EU environmental rules for shipping, shipping companies communicate to customers the foreseeable entity of the superoils
Genoa
The impact on the costs of shipping expeditions seems rather uncertain
Interferry, Marebonus should be adopted across Europe
Interferry, Marebonus should be adopted across Europe
Brussels / Rome
Mathieu : We ask for a pan-European ecobonus system for short sea shipping. Bordoni : RAM relaunches its role in digitalization and innovation of portuality and logistics
De Rosa (SMET) : The ZES tax credit is excluded from strategic production sectors including transport
Salerno
Launch new rules to increase the competitiveness of the Virgin Islands Shipping Registry
Tortola
An autonomous governing board will be set up
MSC confirms Fincantieri orders for two new cruise ships for Explora Journeys
MSC confirms Fincantieri orders for two new cruise ships for Explora Journeys
Geneva / Trieste
They will be delivered in 2027 and 2028
Presented the design of the new waterfront of the port of Piombino
Plunge
The overall cost of the speeches is more than 30 million euros.
ESPO, inserting ports of transhipment close to the EU in the EU scope ETS represents only a partial solution to the problem of the loss of competitiveness of European ports
Brussels
D' Agostino : The shipping companies are preparing, where possible, to exit the EU ETS
Africa Global Logistics (MSC group) obtains the management of the container port of Malindi
Africa Global Logistics (MSC group) obtains the management of the container port of Malindi
Zanzibar
It is the main container port of Tanzania
In 2022, CO2 emissions from ships in Europe returned to pre-pandemic levels.
In 2022, CO2 emissions from ships in Europe returned to pre-pandemic levels.
Brussels
New record of 135.5 million metric tons of carbon dioxide also determined by the 6% increase in the number of ships approx in EU ports
Vopak cedes three terminals for chemical products in the port of Rotterdam at Infracapital
Rotterdam
Transaction of the value of 407 million euros
Giampieri (Assoports) : We have explained to the EU Commission why the ETS poses at risk the competitiveness of Italian ports
Rome
It must be ensured that everyone is playing the game on the same level.
Hapag-Lloyd will establish its own terminalistics division
Hamburg
Hapag-Lloyd Terminal Holding will be based in Rotterdam
German FRS gives up Spanish company FRS Iberia to Danish DFDS
German FRS gives up Spanish company FRS Iberia to Danish DFDS
Flensburg / Copenhagen
The fleet of eight ships and the 750 employees are passing through the Copenhagen Group.
In 2022 the market for insurance of goods grew, but the future is uncertain
In 2022 the market for insurance of goods grew, but the future is uncertain
Edinburgh
Therrien (IUMI) : All regions have registered an increase with the exception of Asia
TX Logistik records a strong growth in demand for rail transport
Troisdorf
Expected this year in total up to 850 trains
Le Aziende informano
C. Steinweg - GMT S.r.l., il vostro partner logistico nella regione del Mediterraneo
L'azienda ha sede a Genova come ufficio regionale del gruppo Steinweg per il Mediterraneo centrale, la Costa Adriatica e il Nord Africa ed è l'operatore leader nella logistica dei metalli in Italia
Anek Lines increases revenue and reduces losses
Anek Lines increases revenue and reduces losses
The Canea
Significant traffic growth of passengers and cars transported by fleet
Continues the relevant drop in container traffic in the port of Barcelona
Barcelona
In August, a total of 284mila teu (-15.4%) was handled.
German shipowners do not see good eye that MSC becomes a shareholder of HHLA
Hamburg
Kröger (VDR) : We hope this decision will have been taken on the basis of objective and transparent criteria
Assiterminal, well the majority and opposition amendments on the concessionaire canons and the contribution to ART
Genoa
Ferrari : We obviously continue to call for the opening of a technical table for the review of ISTAT indexes
In the second quarter of 2023, freight traffic in the ports of Campania decreased by -3.2%
Naples
In Naples, -3.7%, in Salerno, -3.7%
Habben Jansen (Hapag-Lloyd) : We will not present a counteroffer for HHLA, but we could reduce the eventful volumes in Hamburg
Habben Jansen (Hapag-Lloyd) : We will not present a counteroffer for HHLA, but we could reduce the eventful volumes in Hamburg
Hamburg
CEO of the company thrives a transfer of part of the traffic to Wilhelmshaven
Turkish shipyard Med Marine delivers a new tugboat to the Vernicos Scafi
Istanbul
It is the first means of new construction of the fleet of the Greek-Italian joint venture
Kenya Ports Authority privatizes benches at ports of Lamu and Mombasa
Mombasa
Launched an international competition that also includes a special economic zone
Last month, freight traffic in the port of Taranto increased by 6.9% percent.
Taranto
In the first eight months of 2023, a decline of -4.0%
New paints to contain the propagation of fires on ships and construction sites
Palermo
Messina Group has taken delivery of its second full container ship
Genoa
Has a transport capacity of 4,600 teu
Approda in Genoa the first container ship of the FIM service of HMM
Genoa
Scalo to container terminal of PSA Italy
SAILING LIST
Visual Sailing List
Departure ports
Arrival ports by:
- alphabetical order
- country
- geographical areas
First meeting of the technical table on security of work in the port
Rome
Among the proposals, insert some port job profiles between the "usurante/gravest" job categories
Hapag-Lloyd will equip all of its internet connection ships through the Starlink satellite network
Hamburg
Success of tests started in May
In the June-August period, FedEx Group revenues fell by -6.7% percent.
Memphis
Net profit marked a growth of 23.2%
Cooperation of ICHCA and PEMA to improve the safety of handling goods
London
Spearport, necessary to minimize red tape in ports
Genoa
Botta : paper documents are an absurdity in the age of digitalization
Germany's Rhenus acquires the two terminals of the Rietlanden Terminals in the port of Amsterdam
Germany's Rhenus acquires the two terminals of the Rietlanden Terminals in the port of Amsterdam
Singapore / Holzwickede
Dutch company will be ceded in two stages by Singaporean JERA Global Markets
In August the port of Algeciras handled 424mila containers (+ 1.5%)
Algeciras
In the first eight months of 2023, the total was 3.16 million teu (-0.4%)
Conference on the Promotion of Health in the Port Workers of the Straits
Messina
It will be held on October 2 in Messina
Ukrzaliznytsia-RCG Agreement for the development of intermodal transport between Ukraine and Austria
Kiev
In short, the testing of the transport of semi-trailers on the Kiev-Budapest line will begin.
In the first half of 2023 the revenues of the Chinese terminalist group CMPort decreased by -10.8%
Hong Kong
Container traffic grew by 0.3%
Union Pilots has strongly criticized the procedure for renewing the piloting tariffs
Taranto
Bellomo : well the updating of the fares of local practical
At the MITO terminal of the port of Cagliari the first container ship coming out of a Ukrainian port
Genoa
Landed 2,114 containers
The Cool Logistics Global event will be held for the first time in Italy
Genoa
The event is scheduled from 10 to October 12 next in Genoa
In the first quarter of this year, the traffic of goods in Greek ports has returned to growth
Athens
However, the total was lower than pre-pandemic levels.
Last month, shipping containers handled by the port of Valencia fell by -11.7% percent.
Valencia
In the first eight months of this year, the decline was -10.6% percent.
In August, container traffic in Hong Kong port fell by -9.4% percent.
Hong Kong
Decline of -15.1% in the first eight months of 2023
Last month, container traffic in the port of Los Angeles returned to growth.
Los Angeles
In the first eight months of 2023, a decline of -21.0% percent was marked
PORTS
Italian Ports:
Ancona Genoa Ravenna
Augusta Gioia Tauro Salerno
Bari La Spezia Savona
Brindisi Leghorn Taranto
Cagliari Naples Trapani
Carrara Palermo Trieste
Civitavecchia Piombino Venice
Italian Interports: list World Ports: map
DATABASE
ShipownersShipbuilding and Shiprepairing Yards
ForwardersShip Suppliers
Shipping AgentsTruckers
MEETINGS
Conference on the Promotion of Health in the Port Workers of the Straits
Messina
It will be held on October 2 in Messina
The Cool Logistics Global event will be held for the first time in Italy
Genoa
The event is scheduled from 10 to October 12 next in Genoa
››› Meetings File
PRESS REVIEW
España demanda una revisión instantánea de los puertos vecinos de transbordo
(El Mercantil)
Shipping minister resigns in aftermath of ferry passenger's death
(Kathimerini)
››› Press Review File
FORUM of Shipping
and Logistics
Relazione del presidente Daniele Rossi
Napoli, 30 settembre 2020
››› File
Last month freight traffic in the port of Singapore grew by 1.7% percent
Singapore
The containers were over 3.3 million (+ 2.0%)
On October 2 in Lugano, the sixth edition of "A Sea of Switzerland" will be held in Lugano.
Lugano
The conference will be articulated in three sessions
In August, freight traffic in Russian ports grew by 5% percent
St. Petersburg
Increase in dry goods. Decline of liquid bulk bulk
New agency of Negro families, Clavarino and Schenone to provide services to the construction of the new Genoa Dam
In August, container traffic in the port of Long Beach decreased by -15.4%
Long Beach
In the first eight months of 2023, the decline was -24.4%
New freight train service Verona-Wuppertal of Rail Cargo Group
Vienna
Made three weekly rotations
Cargill yields 25% percent of the KSK grain terminal of the port of Novorossiysk
Vladivostok
The share will be acquired by Russia's Delo
Stranded a drug trade in the port of Salerno
Naples
Detected 104 pans of cocaine and the deposit to which they were intended
Ferrante (MIT) : amendments to the European Directive 2023/959 to avoid distortions that penalise Italian transhipment ports
Rome
It would allow Gioia Tauro to be placed on the same list in which ports such as Tangeri Med and Port Said are included.
MOL Chemical Tankers will buy the Fairfield Chemichal Carries
Singapore / New York
The Singaporean company's fleet will rise to 121 chimichiere vessels
In the second quarter, freight traffic in Tunisian ports grew by 13.0% percent.
The Goulette
Loads at landing and boarding increasing by 14.3% and 11.0%, respectively
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